Early 1980s Ishiwata Bicycle Tubing

I have a 1982 Bianchi made using Ishiwata Magny. However, there isn’t a lot of information on Ishiwata framesets. So I thought I would share what I’ve found here.

Ishiwata was a company in Japan that made lightweight steel alloy tubes for framesets until 1993. With the arrival of aluminium frames, the late 80s currency crash and the Japanese depression, Ishiwata closed the doors.

It was used by many top-tier bicycle fabricators such as Bianchi, Nishiki, Bridgestone, Fuji, Lotus, Univega, Panasonic, Raleigh, Peugeot, Schwinn, Trek, Specialize, just to name a few.

Vintage Flandria , Ishiwata 022, Campagnolo Gran Sport.
Vintage Flandria , Ishiwata 022, Campagnolo Gran Sport.

Sheldon Brown has an article that states that, “the top range of [Ishiwata] tubes were seamless double-butted and the finish quality [as delivered to the builder] was much higher than Columbus.” And that the material is virtually identical to Columbus SP/SL/SLX. In fact, the 015 CrMo and 017 CrMo tubes were lighter than the top of the range Columbus CrMo tubes. And Ishiwata Mangy was fairly light weight, stronger and more heat resistant to brazing.

In an article on ClassicVelo it was reported that, “Ishiwata was easy to work with and could produce a frame that was strong as (and in no way inferior to) Columbus, Reynolds or Tange.”

So why is not more known about Ishiwata?

Perhaps it’s because they went bankrupt in 1993. But most likely, it’s because it went under the radar. People simply weren’t aware of how good the Ishiwata frames were. And it’s only been through the passing of time that it has come to light.

Needless to say, here is some information that may help you with your research.

There are 7 types of Ishiwata grades found on pre-1984 bicycles, depending on their use.

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Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
Steel Alloy (015 CrMo)
Used for smooth course track, time trial and pursuit125lb limit
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Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
Steel Alloy (017 CrMo)
Used for smooth course track, time trial, pursuit, and sprint150lb limit
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2023-11-05-at-8.57.34-AM.png
Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
Steel Alloy (019 CrMo)
Used for time trial, track, pursuit, sprint, and road racing150lb limit
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Ishiwata-022-Forks.jpg
Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
Steel Alloy (022 CrMo)
Used for time trial, track, pursuit, sprint, road racing, touring175lb limit
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2023-11-05-at-8.55.54-AM.png
Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
Steel Alloy (024 CrMo)
Used for time trial, track, pursuit, sprint, road racing, touringVery strong
Magny V
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Carbon-Manganese (CMn) Stell Alloy (Magny)Used for time trial, track, pursuit, sprint, road racing, touring200lb limit
Magny X
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Screen-Shot-2023-11-05-at-9.06.21-AM.png
Carbon-Manganese (CMn) Stell Alloy (Magny)Used for time trial, track, pursuit, sprint, road racing, touring200lb limit

About Magny (Carbon Manganese)

In BikeForums it was reported that, “Carbon-manganese tubests started appearing in the very late 1970s and filled the gap between hi-tensile and CrMo. Its tensile strength lay between the two but it retained a higher percentage of its strength after brazing than CrMo.”

“The gauges [of Magny-X] are exactly the same as 022, therefore a tubeset should weigh about the same.”

Weight Comparison

In an early 1980’s catalogue Ishiwata specified the weight of the various alloys. There is a great misconception that Ishiwata named the alloys after their weights. A 019 being under 1.9kg and 022 being under 2.2kg. As you can see from their chart below, this is not the case.

Ishiwata weight chart from early 1980s catalogue

015 – 1350g

017 – 1500g

019 – 1670g

022 – 1880g

024 – 2000g

Magny X – 1880g

While not on the list the gauge of Magny X is exactly the same as 022. According to Salamadrine on BikeForums. “Therefore a tubeset should weigh about the same.”

Magny V – 2000g

On an aside note, I measured the diameter of my Double Butted Magny seat tube. It was 27.0mm. Which is the same as Columbus SP.

Here’s another chart showing different wall thicknesses of the top tube, down tube and seat tube.

*Weights are included here, but they are to be taken with a grain of salt. I’m really not sure how accurate they are here. The Magny-X for example is shown here to be heavier than the Magny-V, when it’s a thinner guage. Manufacturers weighed the tubeset material used to make the frame. Tubesets come in several different lengths for tailoring the butting profiles for different size frames, depending on the set. So it’s not apples to apples.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is IshiwataTubing-1.webp

Of note:

The density of steel doesn’t vary much between alloys. So the best estimation of the weight comparison is the guage (wall thickness).

Columbus SL is equivalent to Ishiwata 022, both with 0.9/0.6/0.9 wall thickness.

Columbus SP is equivalent to Ishiwata 024 and Ishiwata Magny, both with 1.0/0.7/1.0 wall thickness.

There’s no Columbus equivalent to Ishiwata 019 or lower.

There’s a thread on bikeforums that dives deep into this topic comparing Columbus with Ishiwata.

Columbus Ishiwata Comparison

ColumbusIshiwataTube Thickness
0150.6/0.4/0.6Double Butted
0170.7/0.4/0.7Double Butted
0190.8/0.5/0.8Double Butted
0.9/0.6/0.9Double Butted
Chromor0.9/0.7/0.9Double Butted
1.0/0.7/1.0Double Butted
Aelle0.8Straight Gauge
Zeta0.9Straight Gauge

Seem or seamless?

All the above grades mentioned were seamless tubes.

Later, as they released their E varieties, “Ishiwata manufactured both seamed and seamless tubing. The various EX and EXO sets were all seamed, as were anything with an E suffix (i.e. 019E, 022E, etc.).” T-Mar.

Is there a best frame tube material?

While you may see “professional” or other marketing terms applied to various frame grades, the best frame is the one that performs for the physique, weight and use of the rider.

So the answer is yes.

If you need a durable frame, if you’re racing over cobbles, or plan to commute then a thicker/stronger frame tube is best.

If you are a light-weight rider and are riding on a smooth surface or indoor track then one may prefer the thinner alloys, such as Ishiwata 017.

If you weigh more than 175lb, then a CrMo 024 or Magny frame would be ideal.

One forum remarked that a tall strong rider with a large frame may prefer a stronger tube set as a thinner one would flex under power.

Remarks on guages

A butted frame is a type of bike frame where the tubes have varying thickness along their length. They are thicker on the ends where they are welded or brazed to the frames joints, and thinner in the middle where weight saving is desired. Double butted means that both ends are thicker (but the same thickness). Single butted means only one end is thicker. And triple butted means that all three sections of a tube are different thicknesses.

When butted and shaped, a frame can be made fairly light weight.

Until 1983 a double butted (DB) tube was considered the top of the range. Then it went single butted (SB) tube, plain gauge (PG) tube, and taper gauge (TB).

Each of the different grades of alloys could come in any one of the options. You will see it specified on your bike.

By 1984 Ishiwata was producing triple butted tubes. According to Andrew Muzi of Yellow Jersey, “Where a normal double butted tube for a race bike might be 0.9-0.6-0.9, a ‘triple butted’ tube would be 0.9-0.6-0.875 or some such, there being no real difference, sales staff’s patter notwithstanding. ‘Quad’ had slightly longer tapers, again so slight a difference as to be negligible.”


Ishiwata remained largely unknown to most bicycle enthusiasts. Except for a relatively few, it was a hidden gem. Yet, as I researched information I found many forums overflowing with information. Much of it was surprising. Such as the fact that Ishiwata was leading the industry with the lightest weight steel frames at the time. They were even developing Carbon Fibre frames in the early 80s, although I didn’t get into that here. And their Carbon-Manganese frames changed light-weight frame manufacturing. As they were much more resilient to heat. With at least one manufacturer building their robotic frame manufacturing around them.

The more I discovered the more I became intrigued by Ishiwata. As one forum member wrote in a thread about Ishiwata tubing, “and if you continue to explain it to the great ‘unknowledged’ masses, like myself, then my chances of scooping up a bicycle made with it at a bargain price are diminished.”

Further reading:

Early Ishiwata Catalog –

Japanese frames –

Technical discussion of Ishiwata frames –

Fun Journal

Backcountry Skiing in the Monashees

Years ago I cycled a Gran Fondo from Coldstream to Arrow Lake. The route took us over the Monashee pass. A mountain range connecting the West Kootenays with the Southern Interior of British Columbia Canada. Passing the sign on a bicycle, I remember how cool it felt seeing that we were at the summit. I had no idea that years later I would be backcountry skiing mountains just minutes from that sign.

Monashee Summit Pass

Monashee means mountain of peace. It’s from the Gaelic monadh, meaning mountain, and sith, pronouced shee, meaning peace.

And one word summed up the feeling of this trip. Gratitude.

We were based in Keefer Lake Lodge, a cat skiing resort, situated in the heart of the Monashees. The lodge sits in a valley surrounded by mountains on all sides.

Monashee Range

Staying with about 20 other guests we were split into 2 parties. I knew a few of the people there, but the majority I was meeting for the first time.

In the morning we rose, did a brief avalanche safety course, and climbed into the Snow Cats as we set off for the slopes.

Disembarking the Snow Cat at Keefer Lake Lodge

Everyone partnered up. My brother and I have skied together lots. So we rode together. With hoots and hollering we descended the first run.

Each trip up the Cat gave a chance to chat with fellow riders. Slowly getting to learn interesting stories about each of them. They were all solid skiers and snowboarders. By the days end we headed back to the lodge. Our legs worked, and hearts full.

Keefer Lake Lodge had a private chef and made us feel like kings and queens. We sat down to roast elk, buttery lobster, and delicious desserts.

That evening one of the skiers, Mike Shaw, shared his story. It was powerful.

Mike Shaw in competition

He was a pro skier, turned freestyle ski coach, who had trained 2 of the skiers competing in the 2022 Winter Olympics. Then while hitting a jump – everything changed. He shared a photo of himself standing with his arms around 4 pro athletes.

That was the last last photo of him standing.

He broke his neck that day. Rushed to hospital they gave him the option. Do an emergency surgery and have a 50/50 chance of ending up on a tube for the rest of his life. Or not do the surgery and have a 0% chance of recovering. He took the surgery.

Mike Shaw

They removed 4 or 5 of the back bones in his spine and replaced them with metal pins so that his nerves would have room to swell.

He began working with physio rehab. It was a slow process. First he started with arm movement. Then slowly progressed to being helped up and out of a chair.

Yet here he was skiing with us in the backcountry.

He shared his heart, how grateful he is simply to be alive. He feels like he’s been given a second chance.

It’s a truly miraculous recovery.

A 3 day trip, on the last morning we once again ascended the slopes in our Snow Cats. I observed how Mike skied. Despite the challenges he faced, he flowed with grace and ease. I never would have known had he not shared his story.

Still very much in rehabilitation, it turns out that he hasn’t hit a single jump since his injury. That was until this trip. With an abundance of playful features available it was impossible to turn them all down. I noticed Mike sizing some up. And carefully approaching one before finding his balance and sending some air. He landed gracefully, like a cat, and I could see him building confidence.

There are so many ridges available in this range, that we were taken to a new one each time. One of the mountain lines we dropped into on the last day took the cake. As we stood above the drop in, the slope dropped off quick, you couldn’t see what you were lining up for.

The guide called my name and it was time to send it. Everything clicked and I felt that surreal presence that comes when your body connects in harmony with the elements.

Here I am Skiing in the Monashees

There was a moment after that line when we all sat down waiting for the Snow Cat. It may have been right then, it may have been later in the afternoon, I can’t remember. What I do remember was feeling a tremendous sense of gratitude. And I could see it in the faces of my companions. They felt it too. We all felt it.

Mike shared with me later that being grateful was his secret weapon for recovery. It got him out of depression. “We can all go from surviving to thriving, choosing gratitude and our full effort. When you take control of your mind, it’s incredible what you will achieve.”

Mike Shaw on the right

Then something magical happened.

At the end of the day, we climbed one of the mountains for what I thought would be a run. But the guides had a different idea. We were joined by another Snow Cat at the summit and the 2 of the machines began pushing snow and building a kicker in the middle of the backcountry.

My heart skipped a beat. From fear. We were going to hit this?

A backcountry booter was a first for many of us. An experience I didn’t think I would ever have. Leaving the park days behind me a decade ago. It blew my mind that we were about to do this.

Then it was time to hit the jump. Inspired by Mike, who was leaving his limits at the door, I hit the kicker and launched a 360. There was plenty of time as I floated suspended in the air, spotted my landing, and felt the pillow snow beneath my skis. Euphoria filled my soul.

We climbed back into the Snow Cat and lined up again. Dan Martel sent a huge backflip. Mike Shaw did a beautiful grap. Stephen, my brother, who also broke his back skiing (another story for another day) soared through the air. We all left our limits at the door.

Mike Shaw leaving limits at the door

Then for my last jump of the day I went for it with an iron cross. Simply to see how big I could go. I never measured the distance. But the feeling of flying was unbelievable.

And the landing? It was like butter on the skis.

Clearing the impact zone

This was a trip for the books and one for the soul.

“Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for today, and creates a vision for tomorrow.”
~ Melody Beattie

Essays On Horology

Mido Ocean Star Tribute

In 1959 Mido released the Ocean Star line of watches with a completely novel monocoque case design, pressure fitted crystal, cork crown sealing system and an astonishing 300 meters of water resistance. The nineteen-forties and fifties were a time of incredible innovation for waterproof watches. And the release of the 1959 Ocean Star marked a fitting seal to the decade of watch case advancements.

Mido Ocean Star Special Edition Tribute

The “Oceanstar” trademark first began use on movements and the occasional Multifort watch dial since 1944. With the starfish symbol appearing on Mido movements in 1941.

Then President of Mido Watch Company of America, a subsidiary and distributor of Mido watches in the United States, testified, “That his company received shipments of watches marked ‘OCEANSTAR’ beginning in 1944” and that, with the 1959 Ocean Star line, began receiving them in “vast quantities.” [source]

The pursuit of waterproof watches goes back to the 17th century.

By the 20th century there was a push to meet the needs of explorers, navies, and professional divers. As tales of exotic adventure spread, another wave was forming, and would soon make a big splash on popular culture. The emergence of the amateur sport adventurist.

Mido has a long, and fascinating, history in manufacturing waterproof watches.

Used by Navy service men, aviators, and swimmers, by the 1950’s they had developed a reputation for making reliable and durable water resistant pieces. Mido already made their watches with the, later named, Aquadura system which incorporated a chemically treated cork to seal the stem of the crown, and a screw down case back. Amazingly, it worked so well that with the crown pulled out it still provided 100 feet of water resistance [source].

In 1934, they released the Multifort, a watch that was self-winding, anti-magnetic, impact resistant (one of the first watch companies to use the now famous Incabloc system), and waterproof. You cannot overstate how much of milestone this was. It was a winning combination and set the standard that all automatic sport and tool watches would follow.

And it was incredibly waterproof. While some waterproof watches prior to this were resistant to being splashed and marketed themselves as waterproof. This was a watch you could swim with.

Dave Haynes, NAWCC vintage watch repairer and chronicler, said, “Mido watches were very high end expensive watches. They were always cased well and waterproof … Old watchmakers and jewelers I’ve talked to said that they were a direct competitor for Rolex in the high end rugged sport watch market.”

The 1959 monocoque case.

In 1959, with the introduction of a true mono-shell case (the design was only in two parts, crystal and a single one piece monocoque case), the Mido Ocean Star watch offered a degree of impermeability no watch company had achieved before. And it may have just introduced the worlds most water resistant watch with a depth rating of 300 meters.

But, in a very Mido way, they didn’t make a big splash about it.

To put this achievement in perspective. By the 1960s the Omega Seamaster offered 200 meters of water resistance; the Rolex Submariner 100 meters; and the Zodiac Sea Wolf 100 meters.

A dressy sports watch.

Yet Mido was not racing to the bottom of the sea. Rather, they were designing purpose-built watches for another sea-dweller. The recreational, laid-back surfing, skin-diving and water sport enthusiast kind – who valued refined Swiss engineering and beautiful craftsmanship. The Ocean Star was Mido’s move towards a dressy sports watch that improved on the great technology they had refined in the Multifort.

The Ocean Star kept the extremely reliable powerwind movement that had endeared the Multifort to its owners. While designing a new line of sports watches that ranged from ultra-dressy to the more tool-centric bezel diver watch that the Tribute is a reissue of.

As an adventure sports watch of the 1960s, the Ocean Star was as much for mountains as it was for the seas. In 1964/65 Edmund Hillary sponsored an Antarctic expedition to be the first to summit the 9000-foot volcanic peak ‘Big Ben’. It was the first private Australian expedition to the Antartic since Sir Douglas Mawson’s in 1929. And the Mido Ocean Star was selected as the watch of choice for the expedition.

You can find more history of Mido here.

The launch of the 75th Anniversary Mido Ocean Star Tribute.

That was a lot of history. I feel it helps explain the impact of Mido during the 20th century and why the Ocean Star “waterproof” line was so significant to the brand.

To commemorate the mark, Mido released both a black and a blue dial version with aluminum bezels. The Ocean Star has classic masculine lines and a pleasant 40.5mm size for a vintage diver.

The Mido Ocean Star Tribute is a reissue of a watch that was birthed from this golden age of discovery, exploration and adventure.

It stays true to the original aesthetic. Harkening back to a 1970’s Mido diving watch. Carrying over the design elements of the bezel, the orange lollypop second hand (which happens to be the official color of Mido), the rectangular minute and hour hands, the crown guards, and the date/day complication. Here was a watch that would take you anywhere – and would never miss a beat.

Mido Ocean Star Tribute Reissue. Original to the left. Reissue to the right.

Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series

In 2019, Mido chose to launch the Ocean Star Tribute at none other than the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series.

The 75th Anniversary Special Edition Mido Ocean Star Tribute is something to behold. Somehow it pays respect to both their mid-century professional dive watches and their dressier sports watch they were known for. It has a classic 60s dial and diver bezel with a luxurious bracelet. The bracelet is refined, polished, and incredibly well executed. With a beautiful clasp and divers extension.

Watch experts such as Teddy Baldassarre remarked that the bracelet was of a quality that one could not find in the $1150 price range. Saying, “One of the best bracelets I’ve found in a dive watch … As you go out you get to handle hundreds, if not thousands, of watches. You get more of an appreciation for certain things. You get to really hone in on what works and what doesn’t. The Mido Ocean Star just simply works.”

As of the last published COSC certifications, Mido is actually fourth in line for producing the most chronometer certified watches, among the top of Rolex, Omega and Breitling. Which does tell the story of what Mido really cares about when it comes to producing their watches: Swiss precision and quality.

The movement is the Mido Calibre 80. Which is based on the highly regarded Swiss made ETA 2824-2 movement. But modified for an accurate 80 hour power reserve. It’s known as a precise, reliable, and robust mechanical movement. The refined 80 hour power reserve movement is made exclusively for certain Swiss companies. The Mido Calibre 80 improves upon the design with their pallet fork, balance spring, escape wheel, materials and finishes. As Mido CEO Franz Linder says about the movement, “We have certain standards of our own, where we try to go even further.”

Mido Ocean Star Tribute movement

The bezel is steel, unidirectional, and 60-click. It has a bit of lateral play – but does slot into place and lines up precisely.

It has a matte black dial with lumed indices that change color from a pale green to a light cream depending on the the light. Of note is the crown guard, true to the original. Not a common feature of 1960 and 1970 dive watches.

1970s Mido Automatic Diver

In short, the classic styling, the domed crystal, the embodiment of an era, the dual nature of tool and class – all appeals to me.

There’s something beautiful about quality workmanship that can withstand a life of use and still be serviced to carry with it the stories of a one generation to another.

The Mido Ocean Star has the aesthetic je ne sais quoi. Embodying style, functionality, quality, a bit of 60’s flare, and Swiss pride. Finding this watch was unexpected, like hiking a trail, looking down and spotting a jewel. I purchased it the same day I discovered it from a Canadian watch house. And haven’t looked back.

Mido Ocean Star Tribute Features

The retro look of the indexes is perfectly offset by the black dial, orange second hand and bezel.


  • 40.5mm case diameter
  • 13.43mm case height
  • Boxed saphire crystal
  • Aluminum insert bezel
  • Super-LumiNova Applied Indexes
  • Screw-down crown
  • Automatic Mido Calibre 80 Movement (ETA C07.621 base)
  • Elaboré grade
  • Hacking
  • Handwinding
  • 80 hour power reserve
  • 20 bar (200 m / 660 ft) water resistance
  • Hour, minute, second, day and date functions
  • Made in Switzerland
Mido Ocean Star Tribute


The black dial Ocean Star Tribute is an honest and timeless design.

I’d been on the hunt for a do-it-all watch that would wear a lifetime. A waterproof, all-weather, timepiece that would suit an active life of cycling, hiking, swimming, backcountry skiing, business casual, travel and motorcycling.

The Mido Ocean Star Tribute fits the bill. It’s practical, designed to withstand the pressures of the deep and as such is built to tighter tolerances. It has the built in bezel timer. And I plan on keeping the it for a lifetime. The Mido Ocean Star Tribute was exactly what I was looking for.

Discovering the Mido sparked a curiosity to uncover more about this elegant watch maker. And I’ve found the journey of researching the history behind the watch as fascinating and rewarding as the use of the watch itself.

If you have any information, please comment below as it all helps the community.

Reviews by watch enthusiasts.

The community of Reddit has put together a great resource guide on Mido. The common theme is that they are of high quality and one will not regret owning a Mido.

Essays On Horology

A brief timeline of waterproof watches

In 1927 Miss Mercedes Gleitze successfully swam across the English Channel. It was her eighth attempt. However, a rumour began that another woman had swam it first. So she attempted it a ninth time, but failed due to the cold. Rolex had asked her if she would carry their new Oyster watch. Which she agreed to do. And after the occasion Rolex advertised that their watch survived the swim across the English Channel. Rolex always did have a flair for marketing.

Miss Mercedes Gleitze on her ninth swim across the English Channel in 1927

And so began a race for the world’s most waterproof watch.

A brief timeline of early waterproof watches 1850-1960

1851 Pettit & Co. A pocket watch was displayed in a glass globe filled with water.

1851 Pettit & Co pocket watch displayed in water from 1 May and 11 October in Hyde Park. And was visited by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

1891 François Borgel patented a water resistant wrist watch case. Later tested by David Boettcher and found to be waterproof for the time.

Borgel waterproof case. 1. Screw down bezel. 2. Hand set push pin. 3. A spring keeps the crown tight against the stem tube.

1915 Tavannes released the Submarine (sold by Brooke & Son). A watch that was dust and waterproof.

The Horological Journal, December 1917, marks that it is water-tight, non-magnetic, and has a legible dial with luminous figures on a black face and luminous second hand.

1926 Rolex released the Oyster. A watch with a hermetically sealed case.

Rolex Oyster. Able to resist water, but not at any depth.

1932 Omega released the Marine. Which had a second case surrounding the watch to seal out water.

Omega Marine was sunk to a depth of 73 meters in lake Geneva. Then tested to 135 meters in 1937 by the Swiss Laboratory for Horology.

1934 Mido released the Multifort. Which had a sealed waterproof crown and was shockproof, anti-magnetic, waterproof and automatic. Notable that it was an improvement to the Borgel case design released in 1891.

Mido Multifort was tested to a depth of 120 meters and an elevation of 16,600 meters and temperature range of 50°C to -40°C by New York Electrical Testing Laboratories Inc in 1933.

1938 Panerai released the Radiomir. Which used radium based paint which gave off a blue glow in the dark making the dial legible for divers.

1938 Panerai Radiomir. Used by Italian and German forces their Navies required that the lugs be reinforced by the 1940s.

1950 Panerai released the Luminor. Which used a large crown guard, plexiglass, and tritium for the loom.

Panerai Luminor. The surrounding crown guard was patented in 1956.

1953 Blancpain released the Fifty-Fathoms. Which used a rotating bezel and had water resistance to 300ft (50 Fathoms).

Developed under commission for French Ministry of Defence, Captain Robert Maloubier and Lieutenant Claude Riffaud.

1953 Zodiac released the Sea Wolf. Which used a steel rotating bezel and had a 150m water resistance (82 fathoms).

Released almost immediately after the Blancpain Fifty-Fathoms.

1954 Rolex released the Submariner. Which used the rotating bezel and the screw-down crown. Rolex held the patent for the screw-down crown.

1954 Rolex Submariner

1957 Omega released the Seamaster 300. Rated to 200 meters.

1957 Omega Seamaster used a crown system that was pushed in by water pressure. However, when in shallow water it was notorious for leaking in small amounts.

1959 Mido released the Ocean Star. Which used an innovative solid case back design, the cork-sealed crown, a pressure fitted crystal and had a water resistance of 300 meters. They issued various dial varieties of this model. The most famous and significant is the one with the colourful decompression scale.

1959 Mido Ocean Star Powerwind ref 5907. At different depths you could see how long you could remain there before you would have to do decompression.

The innovation of waterproof watches continued well into the 1970s. The period of time from 1850-1960 marked two world wars and a significant advance of technology. Watches went from being utterly defenceless to water to being useful tools at depth. It was an age of deep sea marvel. And set the stage for the emerging watersport and skin-diver enthusiasts of the 1960s and beyond.

Essays On Horology

Mido, A Rich & Storied History

I’ve been on the search for a watch and made the decision to go for the Mido Ocean Star Tribute timepiece.

4 years ago my wife and I set out to renovate our home. It’s been an enjoyable journey. This year we finished the exterior deck (the last of the jobs) and my wife suggested that I buy a watch to commemorate the completion.

Having stumbled upon a video by a talented watch repairman resurrecting a Swiss made Rolex Explorer from salt water damage. I was taken by the intricacies of the automatic components and listened attentively as the skilled master explained that a lady inherited this watch from her father – who had lived an active life, competing in triathlons, and this watch had been his faithful companion – and now she would wear it as it carried with it the stories of her dad.

This is the testament to Switzerland’s excellency of watchmaking.

Switzerland has a deep tradition of specialization. There is a heritage of Swiss craftsmanship that has grown up within tightly knit villages – each concentrating on different parts of watchmaking. This is one of the reasons Swiss watches are so good and their quality world-renowned. And this is exactly how this 1960s Rolex was made.

Thus, a seed was sown and, slowly at first, I began a search for my own durable Swiss timepiece. After comparing numerous pieces from various brands I came upon the 60’s styled Mido Ocean Star Tribute.

I knew almost as soon as I saw it that it was the one for me. It fit every criteria I’d laid out – and more so. The quality of finish was beyond anything I’d seen.

This kindled a curiosity to uncover more about the company behind this elegant watch.

Mido Ocean Star Tribute 75th Anniversary Special Edition

Mido, a story unfolds

Mido is understated – to say the least. Yet, it has historical significance with car-enthusiasts, art, exploration, and sports. And fits as comfortably while driving a vintage sports bike to the beach as it does leisurely relaxing at a cocktail party.

Mido made the first watch ever to offer the exact combination of qualities that were on my list almost a century later, a fact I didn’t know at the time of purchase. In 1934 they released the world’s first antimagnetic, watertight, self-winding, and impact-resistant watch. They had created a durable and handsome do-it-all watch and it became a market success. [souce][source][source]

“In 1934, after a relatively short gestation, Mido introduced the Multifort [with the above mentioned qualities], and thereby sealed its reputation as a serious watch company.” [source]


In 2016, the last published year of the COSC certification, Mido was the 4th most certified Chronometer watch maker in all of Switzerland. Precision and accuracy are synonymous with Mido. In fact, even their non-chronometer movements are adjusted to a minimum of 3 positions for high precision and use the high-quality Nivaflex mainspring for long-term accuracy.

Mido Automatic Movement

With more than a century of history, Mido was quietly writing an important story in watch making.

Horology, the study and measure of time, is poetically found within the name of Mido, which means “measure”.

Founded in 1918 by watchmaker Georges Schaeren and Hugo Jubert on 11 November; the very same day of the Armistice [source]. Simultaneously the Allies and the German Empire signed a truce bringing peace to the conflict of World War I.

Mido G. Schaeren & Co. AG watch factory was setup in Solothurn Switzerland. [source] In 1946 they opened the state of the art production center in Biel Switzerland.

It his believed that Georges Schaeren’s younger brother Henri Schaeren drafted the name Mido.

Henri Schaeren seemed to have a flare for business and in 1924 after serving for 5 years as head of sales at Omega joined Mido as a partner to focus on the commercial operations [source]. This would have freed Georges Schaeren, “an experienced and ingenious Swiss watchmaker,” [source] to concentrate on watchmaking as the company grew.

Mido Founder, Mr. Georges Schaeren

A little known fact is that Mido played a vital role in the early years of Citizen Watch Co.

The newly formed, now famous, Citizen watch company was struggling financially. Founded in 1930 they began assembling pocket watches but had little market success. “Finally the shift to the production of wristwatches saved the company and enabled its growth.” [source]

The first models marketed by Citizen were all in fact Mido models. Funded by bank credits until 1933, Citizen acquired a Swiss trading company importing Mido watches in 1932 and ultimately purchased Swiss machine tools in 1933. In the book Industrial Development, Technology Transfer, and Global Competition: A History of the Japanese Watch Industry Since 1850 author Pierre-Yves Donze writes, “Hence, Mido watches were the models of the three new watches marketed by Citizen until the end of WWII (1931, 1935, and 1941): all were imitations of Mido watches.” [source]

Mido’s early years (1918-1930)

Originally Mido made pocket watches and attractively decorated timepieces. Mr. Georges Schaeren was initially inspired by the art deco movement. [source] By the late 1920’s his pieces were heavily influenced by automobiles. [source] Even patenting the grill style watch case design that won them favour with car club enthusiasts in a flourishing automobile market. [source]

Scharen’s “radiator” watches were produced for various car brands (Buick, Bugatti, Fiat, Ford, Excelsior, Hispano-Suiza, etc), including Lancia, as club membership identification. [source]

*(“Kathleen Pritchard in her work on “Swiss Timepiece Makers, 1775-1975,” gives the year, 1886, for the start of Mido, and her reference is supported by the existence of an important pocket watch marked around the bezel with the name, Henry Schaeren, and signed on the dial, “Melik Mido 1886-1936.” [source] However, of possible coincidence, it’s worth noting Henri, George Schaeren’s brother, was born in the year 1886. [source])

Mido, on the forefront of Swiss self-winding, automatic movements.

Mido has many technical and horological achievements to its name. While I have not gone through the list in exhaustion, here are a few that caught my eye.

  • 1934High water resistance, using the later named “Aquadura” cork crown seal system. It combines an innovative case system that houses specially treated cork seals around the crown stem (a traditional weak point in the case) and meant that water was kept out. A first of its kind, with the case cork housing made by Taubert, and the cork seal made and installed by Mido. It’s still used in some Mido models to this day. Mido had this undergo arduous testing by the New York Electrical Testing Laboratories.
  • 1934 – Shock resistance, “Mido was one of the first watch companies to feature the Incabloc system, and the earliest Multifort watches used the prototype Incabloc system without the familiar lyre-shaped spring, [later] introduced in 1938.” [source]
  • 1934 – Unbreakable mainspring, “the very first time that any watch manufacturer utilized this type of spring within the marketplace.” [source]
  • 1934 – Anti-magnetism, Tissot was the first to introduce non-magnetic watches in 1930. Mido among the vanguards [source].
  • 1934 – Automatic wind, Mido made their first automatic movement in 1934 and it began to appear in ads in 1935 [source]. The first automatic wristwatch was released in 1928 by John Harwood under Harwood watches, who first patented the invention in 1923. Mido was on the leading-edge [source].
  • 1934 – MultiFort, first watch to be completely “waterproof”, as well as being anti-magnetic, shockproof and self-winding [source].
  • 1937 – Multi-Centerchrono, the first manufacturer to introduce a central-read chronograph whereby all the functions of the chronograph on are arranged from the centre post of the dial. Dates from sources vary between 1937-1941. With Mido historian Bruce Shawkey placing it at 1937. [source][source][source]
  • 1939 – Radiotime One-click Synchronizer, “it is the first watch rendering possible the simultaneous registrations of the exact time, minute, and second by simply pressing a pusher set in the crown.” However, it is exceptionally rare and is considered the holy grail for this watch collector. [source]
  • 1939 – Datometer, allowed the date to be displayed using an additional central hand. [source]
  • 1941 – Multi-Centerchrono, the first manufacturer to introduce a central-read chronograph whereby all the hands are arranged from the centre of the dial. [source][source]
  • 1954 – Powerwind, simplifying the design of the automatic power system down from 16 to 7 parts and providing a longer power reserve for the watch; it also reduced faults and led to easier servicing. [source] It was considered, “The world’s most efficient winding mechanism.” [source]
  • 1959 – Front-loading waterproof backless watch case, like the Aquadura this was the result of a collaboration with Taubert. A watertight watch was patented in Switzerland by Bernard Taubert (their case manufacturer) the following year in 1958 and the patent published in 1960. [source]

These years established Mido as a Swiss watch company of reputable workmanship, an uncanny grasp of the future, with a flare for design.

Mido Multi-Centerchrono

Artisanship + innovation

Hindsight may be 20/20 but from the perspective of the time (“most people still had keep-fit hand-crankers” [source]) one may wonder how Mido, then known for artisanal workmanship, were able to introduce so many new technological advances.

Their approach to innovation was not unlike Edison’s invention of the lightbulb. Edison had a deep understanding of the component parts available at hand, foresaw how they could work together, and therefore understood the building blocks of the lightbulb. If one understood that a filament would glow when electrified, that placing the filament inside an inert gas like nitrogen would increase the time it would glow before burning out, and that one could enclose those within a glass bulb – they would have invented the electric lightbulb.

Mido’s path was similar in that it both discovered and brought together emerging technologies where the whole was greater than the sum of the parts. As was shown in the Multifort.

“The extraordinary thing about the Mido Multifort is not that a single firm could manufacture such a “complete” technically advanced and durable wristwatch within a few years – indeed the fact is that Mido did not make this celebrated timepiece itself – but that Mido perspicaciously and cleverly put together no less than three, and then four, new horological and technical advances in watchmaking, invented and manufactured by other companies, and incorporate them into a single model.” [source]

Along with past technical advances, a rich and storied history unfolds.

The founder of the iconic Bugatti, Ettore Bugatti, owned a Mido. Italian born French automobile designer and manufacturer, he had an eye for design. Recently his watch auctioned off in 2021 for $350,000 USD or “no less than 300,000 Swiss francs.” [source]

By the 1930s Mido founder Schaeren was determined to make beautiful watches that could also endure the “rigours of daily use.” [source] Current Mido CEO, Franz Linder, shared in an interview that in 1934, “It was all about being innovative. There was an emphasis upon not only quality, but also robustness and timeless design.” [source]

By the in 1960s their presence stretched from Brazil to Antarctica. In 1959 they were even sponsoring Miss Brazil [source].

The Mido Ocean Star was selected as the official watch in an “Antarctic expedition led by Warwick Deacock and sponsored by Edmund Hillary,” in 1965 [source]. They would require a reliable, durable and waterproof piece that could endure the hardships of the wet and cold journey. “By 1964 [Antartica] had been the object of a number of expeditions, but none reaching the summit of its 9000-foot volcanic peak ‘Big Ben’. In that year Warwick Deacock resolved to rectify this omission, and assembled a party of nine with impressive credentials embracing mountaineering, exploration, science and medicine, plus his own organization and leadership skills as a former Major in the British Army.” [source] Eventually summiting the mountain and returning to tell the tale.

Voyage to summit Antarctic volcano Big Ben

Establishing a reputation for waterproofness and quality.

A notable fact of vintage Mido watches is that many have withstood the test of time. While researching this article I came across the watches as being known for their waterproof qualities. “In not too distant history Mido were known as being the best manufacturer of waterproof watches.” [source] And I came upon anecdotal remarks by watch-repairers that when opened, Mido movements and dials are generally less corroded or pitted than expected for their age. Made even more astonishing given the fact a large number of vintage Mido’s were purchased for use in tropical climates.

The reason for this was because of the combination of the innovative cork sealing advancement (1930) that prevented water from entering the case through the crown stem and the absence of the case back introduced in 1959. “In fact the watch was so waterproof you could pull the crown out while underwater.” [source]

Aquadura cork crown seal system

With the aquadura system, “If you pull out the crown you still had 50 meters of water resistance.” [source]

Mido watches were resilient to not only submersion but humidity. The combination of aesthetic and durability gained Mido a strong reputation for quality and prestige. Mido “now had a firm footing in the market – still with a reputation for stylish watches but now also catering for a growing market for reliable, functional and durable wristwatches.” [source]

Mido and service personnel

In his memoire Friends and Exiles, Des Alwi Abubakar, Indonesian Diplomat, and son of Vice President of Indonesia recalled being gifted, “a Swiss-made, ‘Mido’ brand watch, which was the most expensive and most-wanted watch by Japanese military and civilian personnel. It fetched a price of three hundred to five hundred rupiah, on which one could live for 6 months.”

The Mido Multifort was apparently issued to pilots of the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II.

In a humorous 1947 account of a United States Navy Procurement Hearing, the businessmen given the right to provide the Navy with watches, were upset that Navy personnel were buying Mido watches and that the Navy Procurement office had “tried to procure these watches without our benefit.”

When asked the names of the watches they replied.

“These particular watches in question were the Mido watch – which is an automatic service-type watch – Empire, Hallmark, and Roma. They are all Swiss watches, imported, and they found particularly good favour among the personnel.”

[See the Subcommittee Hearings on Army and Navy Systems of Procurement for Post Exchanges and Ship’s Service Stores]

Mido watches were therefore prized and used by US Navy service personnel during World War Two. However, blocked by private business interests from being officially procured by the US Navy.

It is also noteworthy that Mido was, “Praised by pilots that used the Multifort during the Second World War.” [source] And that Walter Schaeren, son of the Mido founder and later to be company president, was in the Swiss air force in this period. As a result Mido also made pilot watches when Schaeren was president.

1945 Advertisement stating Airman depended on Mido

A “Be Bold” marketing campaign.

Mido was convinced of the quality of their watches and marketed them with confidence in the 50s and 60s. Boldly recommending their customers take their watches wherever they choose to go. “Be Bold!” was a phrase they used often. Or, “Expect to see a Mido where you wouldn’t expect to see a watch!” Even stating, “Mido is guaranteed 100% waterproof at depths down to 1000 feet. It’s self-winding, shock-resistant, and has unbreakable mainspring.” And reassuring, “They all have one thing in common: they’re rugged. Don’t worry about accidental knocks and bumps. Don’t worry about getting it wet (you can actually swim or go skin diving with a Mido because it’s fully waterproof.”

The Swiss watch manufacturer Mido had the watch undergo the official test of the United States Government in the early 1930s. [source][source] You read that correctly.

“To prove that the MULTIFORT functioned under extreme conditions, Mido had it tested by the New York Electrical Testing Laboratories Inc. Tests were conducted in freshwater and saltwater for over a thousand hours. The watches were then subjected to ten cycles of 15 minutes at 50°C followed by 15 minutes at -40°C. The winding crown was subjected to a test representing 34 years of use. Simulated tests of immersion to 13atm (120 m) and ascending to altitudes of 6,600, 13,300 and 16,600 metres were performed. One of the 6 watches tested ceased operating at 13,300 metres, but apart from that the watches seem to have passed the tests with flying colours.” [source][source]

Arguably the greatest test of durability comes from real-world use.

Mido seemed to understand this and shared letters they had received from happy customers who had used it for expeditions to Alaska, military service in tropical heat and heavy snows, and everyday use by professionals.

A Houston, Texas, man writes about his Mido Superautomatic watch: “I lost my Mido in the dirty salt water of a ship’s channel. Two years later while walking along the beach I found my Mito watch half-buried in the muddy bank, still running in perfect condition. The tidal action kept the watch wound.”

Needless to say Mido was confident in the quality of their timepieces.

In 1944 Mido trademarked the Ocean Star name.

“Its roots are traced back to 1942 when the brand marked its famous starfish trademark at its crest as a symbol of its advances in waterproof technology. Two years later, he registered another trademark, the name OCEANSTAR, and thus officially started the foundations for one of Mido’s most iconic collections.” [source]

Then with the ground-breaking front-loading case they incorporated in 1957 it wasn’t long before the Ocean Star became the “star” of their line. The solid case back further added to the water resistant quality of their watches. The Ocean Star line moved Mido towards an elegant and water-friendly lifestyle. Surf, sail, dive, and boating – all were encouraged with the Ocean Star. Even being used in the Antarctic expedition.

For such a stylish piece, the Ocean Star also embodied a playful side.

Don’t worry about getting it wet you can actually swim or go skin diving with a Mido because it’s fully waterproof.”

“Diner clothes or diving gear… it makes no difference to Mido “Ocean Star.” It takes to water like a marlin, adds its own note of elegance to the most elegant surroundings.”

It was the golden age of water sports and exploration. And Mido were inviting you to participate in style.

In the 2000’s Mido released a series of aesthetically attractive watches inspired by the enduring quality of timeless architecture. First the All-Dial collection inspired by the Colosseum of Rome in 2002. The Belluna collection which draws on the geometric shapes of Art Deco architecture. And then the Great Wall collection inspired by, of course, the Great Wall of China.

Mido continues to carry on their tradition of playful and beautifully crafted watches in their Ocean Star series – while paying honour to their history of elegance – and making it look easy.

Today their watches surpass expectation.

The quality, history and legacy is beyond what one hopes. Perhaps being founded on armistice foreshadowed the brand, as no word better conjures up the feeling one gets from holding a Mido watch as well-preserved hope. What I love about Mido is that they have their own brand identity that can be seen in the their Multifort, Commander, and Ocean Star collections – and have stayed true to it.

Mido’s history is rich, interesting and surprising. While the research for this article revealed a deep and long relationship with horology, The brand is appreciated by their enthusiasts for their understatedness and settled confidence. Franz Linder, CEO since the early 2000’s, has lead Mido well and helped continue it as a self-assured brand with a storied past and a positive future.

Essays On Brand On Horology

Brand & Watches

What can you learn about building a brand from watch manufacturers and enthusiasts?

I’m on a journey to buy a watch. An automatic mechanical watch to be exact. I’ve been fascinated by the beauty of self-powered mechanical machines for as long as I can remember. I bought my first wind-up clock on a family trip to the UK as an 8 or 9 year old.

I have a short-list of items that I’m looking for. A watch with an automatic mechanical movement, that I can wear day-to-day, that tracks time (for training), that is water-proof, that looks timeless, and that is durable.

At first I saw a Seiko mechanical watch that fit the bill. However, due to the fact that I already have a Seiko, I thought this is as good a time as any to try something new.

And then the watch buying journey of twists and turns began.

Despite being a landlocked country, my first port of call was Switzerland. It is has a well established brand of making high quality watches.

My methodology was simple. Start with finding a watch that fit the criteria and then, because I’m not able to see these watches in person, research the reviews to see if it would be a good buy. This is where I began to face the labyrinth of brand.

I was first introduced to Hamilton watches and then Tudor, Delma, Tissot, Marathon, and Glycine. In that order. All Swiss watch manufacturers. Other than Tissot, all brands that were new to me.

Glycine Combat Sub

I’m not generally particular about a brand. I look at quality and function, begin to love a product after use, and only then I become curious about the company, story and brand itself. However, without first-hand experience, each review I read would turn me down a different path. Brand mattered to them.

One reviewer would speak of heritage and say that another brand was preferable. So I would start my search again with their recommended model. Or one name was more known than another which could impact servicing, so again I was introduced to a new brand. Another reviewer would say that another movement in a different watch is better or had been used for longer, which may impact durability.

As I am looking for a waterproof watch that could be used as a timer, I began to narrow my search around dive watches. It turns out, some watch manufacturers had a history of being deeply involved with diving, while others were not, this was important to the reviewer. Even when everything seemed comparable – history, technology, movement – suddenly the watches’ parent company would come into question.

I just wanted a durable, quality, mechanical, waterproof and timeless watch.

In these reviews I learned about exhibition cases, servicing concerns, “hacking”, power reserve, manual winding, tolerances, origin, and that all movements were different. Some, with much to be desired.

Finally, after going around in circles, I thought I would look outside of Swiss watches and came across Yema, a French watch manufacturer. They made dive watches. They have heritage and technology. But when reading reviews the customer service of the company was being called into question – a new one to me.

Yema Superman Dive Watch

It’s enough to pull ones hair out.

While out on a hike in the mountains and reflecting on all this new information, it struck me, there’s so much to learn about building a brand from watches.

In fact it was easy to categorize all the decision points into building blocks of brand.

A brand is the marriage between how a company presents itself and how the consumer perceives them. It is not one or the other. It is the intersection. And brand matters. It adds confidence to a purchase decision or introduces doubts.

We think of goodwill in business as the relationship, hopefully a positive one, between the business and the customer.

For example, a reviewer may make bold claims that a product is great or the service is terrible. But that statement alone does not make the brand. Lets say someone claims Rolex has terrible customer service. Do you think the Rolex brand will be tarnished? Of course not. Because there’s more to brand. But, another company, a lesser known one, may find it will take time to regain trust with their market after a statement like that is made.

So what is it that composes the brand?

When it comes to watches people care about honesty.

This came up again and again in reviews. Collectors didn’t mind if the mechanical movement was proprietary or if it was a 3rd-party movement. They didn’t mind if it was made in Switzerland or simply assembled there. What they did mind was if a company was misleading – claiming a component was made somewhere it wasn’t. If one part of the marketing story was found to be untrue, all was called into question. Integrity was lost.

Watch reviewers are very thorough. They’ll even go to a watch maker to have them dismantle the watch and inspect the parts to offer their opinion.

The opposite was the case as well, no pun intended. If a marketing story was found to be true, the brand would increase in appeal. The richer the story, the greater the value.

Story matters.

Brands that can boast having been in outer space, in battle, in the Navy, on explorations, or having innovated technology – all garner the admiration of the wearer.

Omega watch in space

In part, I believe because that’s the draw to a mechanical watch. The watch represents something. Both stylistically and idealistically. You’re respecting a moment, a demeanour, an accomplishment. But the story must remain intact.

Design matters.

Mechanical movements are becoming works of art, along with the dial, bezel and case. Watch enthusiasts care very much about aesthetics. But not in isolation. A well designed watch is one where the aesthetic matches the utility of the watch.

Here a dive watch looks and functions as a dive watch. The utility is in the design.

How this effects brand is when a watch company produces designs that are true to the function of the piece and their expertise. In other words, true to the heritage and roots of the company. Over time this design becomes iconic to that watch. Think of a Rolex Explorer.

A company that produces designs outside of their tradition, and without purpose, other than to reach a broader market – takes the company away from the brand they were establishing.

Whereas if a watch company works with the Navy, for example, to supply a new dive watch, this expands the brand as there is a strong sense of purpose behind the new design.

Even advertising matters.

Most marketers, especially digital ones, may think of awareness as brand building. Working to reach new audiences and make a logo known and trusted. But they advertise to get a purchase, rather than tell a story. That type of advertising is more in line with sales, and does not build brand equity.

Just like the watches themselves, every advertisement, every artwork, and every article produced becomes the brand’s artifacts over time. An advertisement may showcase a movement or a diver. The visual design of the advertisement must mirror both the character of the watch and the copy be true to the integrity of the story.

From what I can gather, one example where advertising backfired was when Tudor watches sponsored Lady Gaga as their spokesperson. The reason for this is that the person who purchased Tudor watches couldn’t relate to her, despite her success within the music industry and her gritty determination. It was off-brand. And the forums were not quiet about it.

The next thing that stands out is quality & engineering. And also quality control.

The piece must meet or exceed all expectations. One expects a Swiss watch, for example, to set the standard for craftsmanship. If play is found in the bezel or the band, a part misaligned, or a movement appears poorly assembled or unrefined, it is remarkable to the reviewer. Mido was a brand that consistently outperformed on quality.

Mido Ocean Star Tribute

Quality and quality control are not the same thing, I learned. Watch reviewers seemed surprisingly accommodating of poor quality control issues, as long as the watch manufacturer was quick to remedy the situation by replacing the watch with a quality of engineering one would expect. Essentially, to stand behind their own brand.

Which brings us to customer care & service.

When buying a watch one does not expect an issue. It is assumed that in this day and age your watch will arrive beautifully made and performing within specification. There is a wide array of variance to specifications, depending on the watch, the movement, and the meticulousness of the manufacturer, which the buyer is responsible for knowing when choosing their watch. However, if an issue does arise, one does expect a courteous resolution. This was made clear by the comment threads. And it doesn’t take many negative comments to turn-off would be buyers new to a brand.

Because I’m new to automatic watches I hadn’t considered the future need of servicing one. So when looking to buy a watch, customer service wasn’t high on my list of considerations. So I was surprised to see reviewers mention it. But it is clear, that if left unresolved, poor customer service does tarnish an otherwise faultless brand. Ever more so in service-oriented businesses, whose brands are built on service.

In conclusion

Brand is not simply the perception of the marketplace. It is a product of the company – engineering, service, quality control & marketing – working together to create value and establish the company name firmly within the world. It’s simple; the product must live up to the hype. And demand will follow.

This constant forging of perception, with how a company presents its products and the public’s opinion of the end-result, either increases the brand’s value and draw or leaves it in the chasm of commonplace.

Which means a business that intentionally masters the key components of a brand, will eventually with determined effort, establish itself as the brand they aspire to be.

The key components are Integrity, Story, Design, Advertising, Quality, Service, Credibility, Innovation & History.

Great watch brands are amazing at presentation and imagery in story telling. Their websites and marketing reinforce the look, feel and narrative they are communicating. They leverage partnerships, such as sporting events, to establish credibility. When new to a subject or product one trusts the opinions of experts. If they are respected by the professionals and icons we respect, we feel they in turn can be endeared by us. They push the boundaries of engineering. Pioneering new innovations of power reserves, deep sea depths, and time keeping. There is an integrity to the way they build watches and market themselves. Under scrutiny there is a consistent and uncompromising adherence to honesty and quality. They are what they say they are. Their service is of the same quality as their products. Treating their customers with care and respect. Their advertising tells their story. With charm, gusto and beauty. And over time this creates a rich history of tradition, accomplishments and heritage.

Then when a consumer finds a product with design and engineering that appeals to them, they will purchase it with confidence. This is the power of brand, confidence.

Every company will have a brand that is unique to them. Just as every person is different, so is every business. And the individual values, positioning, and journey of each company will contribute accordingly and attract customers who resonate with it.

It is the responsibility of the company to produce great products. To tell their story. To communicate their values. To create partnerships that strengthen their credibility. And to market themselves in a way that aligns with their core message.

To this I say to brands.

“It doesn’t matter where you are, you are nowhere compared to where you can go.”

Bob Proctor

Time will tell your story.

mac Tutorials

How to clear your scratch disks on your Mac

Here’s how to free up space on your Mac scratch disks.

Have you seen the message when opening Adobe Photoshop? “The currently selected scratch disks are full. Please modify scratch disk preferences that will come into effect in the next launch.”

This means that your internal hard drive is full, or almost full. And some apps need a few gigs to run.

Here’s how to fix it

Step 1. Go to About this Mac

Click the Apple icon on the top left hand side of your screen. A list of dropdown options will appear. Then click “About This Mac”

Step 2. Click on the Storage tab

A new window will appear. Click the “Storage” tab.

Give it a minute for the Storage to calculate which files are using the space. The more full it is, the longer it will take.

Step 3. Next, Click the button “Manage”

This will open up a new window. Here you will see a list of things taking up a lot of space on the left hand column.

Step 4. Review your apps

You can see in my screenshot above the Applications are taking up 38.81 GB of space. There may be some apps that you just aren’t using. You can delete those from here.

Click on the app. Then click on the “delete” button.

Step 5. Next, review your documents

Documents is a common place where you will find files that are taking up a lot of space.

Click on the “Documents” on the left hand column. You will see a list of documents appear on the right hand side. Again, review your documents and click on the ones taking up too much space. And click delete.

Go throughout the list and delete anything you can.

If you are unsure what it is, click on Show in Finder to open the file and see what it is.

Step 6. Continue to review any other places that you have unneeded files

Step 7. Go to your trash bin and empty it out.

Step 8. Close out your applications. And relaunch them. They will now be able to run with your free space.

Congrats! You’re done.

Honda CB550 Journal

Honda CB 550 Motorcycle Build

In 2019 I purchased a Honda CB550 motorcycle. The year on the front plate is 1974. Which happens to be the first year the CB550 was introduced.

Honda had raced the 500cc in the World Grand Prix. But in 1969 the FIM introduced new rules (including weight minimums, a maximum number of cylinders and a maximum of six speeds). Honda walked out. And didn’t declare their return until 1977.

Soichiro Honda, the founder of Honda, loved racing and the progress in technology that resulted. The 500cc was the creme de la creme of GP racing at the time. But, having departed the GP, Honda was left without a production 500cc engine to advance. Surprise surprise, the following year Honda released the CB500 in 1971.

Honda spent a lot of focus on the 500 engine, releasing the CB550 in 1974, which replaced the outgoing CB500 with a larger displacement, faster acceleration, and the ability to mount dual front disc brakes. This may have been surprising to the motorcycling world. But Yoshimura, who lead Honda’s 500cc engineering return to the GP, joined Honda in 1972. Remarked, he was tasked, “to create something that would represent the very best in technology. We were determined to create an engine to surprise the whole world.”

Then in 1979 Honda debuted in the Grand Prix with a new 500cc engine. While 2 stroke engines were by now considered an advantage on the racing circuit, “Nonetheless, Honda wanted an engine that displayed a level of originality that fitted in with the business principles laid out by its founding father. The result was an engine unlike anything ever seen before in the racing world—a high-revving four-stroke, four-cylinder unit, with unique oval-shaped pistons that gave the visual impression of a V8.” [Honda]

The CB 500 and CB 550 are part of this story. The build:

I had purchased a 1982 Honda CB750 in 2013. But after a house reno and an undiagnosed electrical problem, the bike remained a non-runner 5 years later. So when I saw a running CB550 project bike for sale in the classifieds, I jumped on the opportunity.

Viewing the bike for the second time. It was frozen solid on my first viewing, so was inside to thaw

But it wasn’t without its issues. As I would soon discover.

Job 1: Clean the bike

It was covered with wax, dirt and everything in between. It was used in a film and the set crew had gone to town with it. Turned out to be a much bigger task than expected. And really the bike needed a total respray.

Job 2: It was running rich. So my first mechanical job was to sort that out.

I wrote a full post about tuning the carburetors over here.

Turns out that it was actually running lean with one cylinder running very rich. This was not the last I would see of these carbs.

Carburetors disassembled to clean and rebuild

Job 3: Deal with bondo cracks in the gas tank

I sanded the bondo to remove the cracked filler. Originally I was going to simply fill the holes, but the more I sanded the more damage was revealed.

Initial sanding of the filler

I took it to Bill a man gifted at paintless dent repair. He did an amazing job with the tank. So good that I was tempted to keep the tank metal and clear coat it. I may still do this in the future.

Return from Bill’s with a dent free tank

Job 4: Rebuild the forks

The front forks were rusted. So I decided to remove them to restore them and give them a full rebuild at the same time.

Unrestored front forks

After removing the rust and polishing them, I dissembled and cleaned the inner workings. The oil that came out of these forks was the most foul smelling stuff of legend.

Disassembled front forks off the CB550

I ordered new gaitors and reassembled.

Job 5: Respray the frame

The frame had been painted silver. Then over sprayed flat black, then sanded back to the silver. It needed respraying.

We were getting ready to move homes, so rather than doing an engine out powder coating, I purchased good quality caliper paint from Lordco and sprayed the frame in place. (I plan on doing a proper frame restoration down the road).

First step is to clean the frame from all oil, wax and grease. Use a good wax and grease remover. Step 2 is to sand the entire area you are painting. Remove any loose chips (this bike had many) and sand smooth. Step 3 is to wipe clean of dust. Step 4. Prime. Step 5. Apply your coat.

Frame looking fresh after the respray

My wife and I then went to the ski hill for a few days.

Job 6: Sell my old 1982 Honda CB750 bike.

There was a lineup of people wanting to buy it. Ended up meeting a really cool guy who rebuilt bikes. And he picked it up in his mini van. Hilarious.

Making bike friends
There’s a first for everything. CB750 loaded in a minivan.

Job 7: Rebuild the brakes

I had to replace the brake fluid cylinder, lever and all brake lines. Also replaced the brake pads. Topped up the brake fluid. I did learn a lesson. I mistakenly pulled the brake lever while testing it with the disc out. That was a fun job opening the brake again. With the wheel in, the brake adjusted we were good to go.

I don’t have many photos of this job. I did purchase the mounting kit and a second caliper and disc to convert the front wheel to a dual disc at the same time. Which I will post about when I do the conversion in the near future.

Measuring all gaps prior to rebuilding and cleaning the front brakes.

My bro and I then headed to Facebook’s F8 developer conference in San Jose California.

Job 8: Paint the tank

While the tank was painted maroon for the movie, the insurance papers for the bike shows the original color as blue. So rather than inviting an inspection when reinsuring it. I opted to paint the tank blue again.

Painting is fairly straight forward. Sand everything smooth. Fill any holes/scratches. Clean it with a wax and grease remove. Wipe clean with a lint free rag. Prime. Sand. Clean. Prime again. Sand again with a 400 grit wet sand paper. Clean. I used spray paint to spray the tank with the top coat. Be sure to spray it in a shady and dust free area. Flash drying in heat and direct sun causes cracks. Painting after the rain is a good time as it clears pollen. Do 3 coats of top coat. Light at first. The final coat makes everything smooth. Sand with 800 grit wet sand paper if desired. Clear coat.

Painting the tank outside.

Other jobs

Oil change, new spark plugs, new battery (twice), timing, tightened the cam chain, set valve clearances, synced the carbs, wrapped the exhaust, and replaced/installed missing or broken components (such as the tachometer, seat lock, ignition, you name it).

I wrote a complete guide on how to tune your CB550 for pods here.

(Oh and I moved in the middle of this build)

Syncing carbs on the 4-stroke CB550

The bike is not showroom perfect, it has a ton of character, and rather than making everything like new, I’ve kept the original side emblems as they were, and the engine fins, which are chipped, are now clean, but not polished, as it tells the story. And honestly, I love it.

Build complete

I road the bike to my dad’s place to show him. He got real quiet. I was wondering why… Then he shared how he road an early 70 Honda CB250 bike very similar to this when my mom was pregnant. Coincidentally it had a blue and white tank, almost identical to the one on this bike. I knew none of this.

Essays Honda CB550 Journal On motorcycles

Unearthing the history of a 1974 Honda CB550

Hints of the story behind a Honda CB550 that is what it shouldn’t be.

When I went to look at a cb550 after it caught my attention browsing through the classifieds, I saw a rugged, characterful and misused motor with some semblance of charm. It was icy outside, so after taking the bike indoors to let it thaw, I returned the following day to hear it run. With the tap of a button the engine roared to life. Within an instant a connection formed, almost like meeting an old friend after many years.

The year was 2019 and with 45 years under its belt, having been built in Japan and driven across North America, I knew it would have stories. If only it could speak.

Laden with dirt, grease and wax the bike looked worse for wear. Tom, the prior owner of the bike, mentioned to me that he had rented to it to a movie production and their costume and set team had had their way. I couldn’t wait to get a rag and some soap to it.

As the bike stood, February 13 2019

But that’s when hints of a story began to emerge.

I noticed that the badly painted gas tank (again thanks in part to the apparent movie set team) had bondo cracks. So I called Bill, a talented dent repair specialist, if he would be able to take a look at it. “Sure,” he said, being a fellow bike guy. But mentioned that gas tanks were anything but easy when it came to popping dents.

Well that night I began the arduous work of sanding the bondo from the tank and prepping it for Bill. Yet as I peeled away the layers of old repairs and paint, more and more dents appeared. Clearly this bike had seen adventure.

Bill’s face lit with amazement when I showed him the tank. But faithful to his word he did his best. I was blown away by the difference. The once brutally damaged tank was enhanced to a patina that matched its age. I could almost hear my new old friend smile.

Tom had mentioned the bike was running rich. So I carefully tore open the carburetors. Meticulously organizing as I went. Someone, long ago, had rebuilt these carburetors before me. And had used some sort of seal gasket glue on everything, filling critical pathways and even covering the holes of the drain screws – which had been glued closed. It was obvious that others had since tried loosening them. Fortunately I had this incredible cleaner on hand. It’s probably toxic and deadly but eats through anything, so I love it.

The tear down begins

I found the source of the fuel mixture issue. The number 4 gasket was missing the needle. That would do it. Clearly someone else had discovered this too. The piston in the same carburetor was dented and bent from what appears to have been the work of a nonsamurai master. Fortunately, a file and carb cleaner made short work of the worst of it and the piston was removed. After addressing any issues, fixing all bent components and bolting it back together the carburetor looked and functioned as good as new… almost. The number 4 exhaust was cold after firing up the engine. Fortunately I was able to quickly find a replacement piston on eBay and then the engine ran without fault.

I thought it odd that the inner workings of the engine seemed to be in better condition than the carburetor.

Later, I began the simple task of bleeding and rebuilding the front forks. I ran into my first snag. The fork screws were sealed with the same gasket glue as the carburetor. And then, to my surprise, the lower springs were missing. I quickly checked online to see if any CB550s came stock without lower springs in their forks. Sure enough the CB550f did. 

Earlier I had noticed the original color of the bike was said to be blue. According to insurance files it had always been blue. I searched online to see if any CB550fours were blue by stock. At first my search would turn up fruitless. 

The rear passenger frame mounts had long since been removed and I hadn’t checked the serial number of the bike. Suddenly I began to fear that my bike wasn’t what I thought it was. 

Grabbing my papers I ran to the garage and scanned the front of the bike. There it was, the number stamped into the front. But I couldn’t see the vin plate which concerned me. Turning the handlebars I saw thick black tape covering half of the front of the frame. More concerning still.

I pealed back the tape to reveal a shiny original vin plate matching the vin stamped on the frame and the vin of the papers. Anyone standing nearby would have heard an audible sigh of relief.

Now I began to wonder about the engine. Fortunately, I had noticed on the website of a European Honda parts supplier a document of all the frame and engine numbers. I compared the number of the engine with frame. The years matched. Then I noticed they also documented the carburetor number as well – which surprised me. 

But as I checked the numbers, the carburetor matched a CB550f, like the forks. Another story emerged. Clearly the forks and carburetor were most likely from the same bike and for whatever reason had replaced the original ones on this bike.

That would explain why the motor seemed in better shape than the carbs. And why I couldn’t find any traces of that gasket glue anywhere else on the bike or engine.

But again I wondered about the color. I knew a CB550f came in blue. Perhaps that was the confusion. But no, the fuel tank was a different shape, rather than having the classic styling with the chrome lid, the CB550f was a more modern shape and had a hidden cap. Secondly, while the frame is nearly identical between the bikes, the mounting points are not. And the CB550f side panels didn’t fit the my frame.

Then by happenstance I stumbled upon a 7 year old video on Youtube of an original blue CB550. It appeared to be the same year as my own. Curious, I went back to the garage and examined my parts. The side cover was cracked and beneath layers of primer and repaints, there as clear as day was a metallic blue. I flipped over my fuel tank as well, and sure enough I could see metallic blue overspray. So definitely the original tank. I did also spot green overspray as well. Perhaps there was an option to custom paint the bike when purchasing it? Or possibly they swapped a cb500 tank and side panels when purchasing the bike? Perhaps someone reading this would know if that is something that was done in the 70s.  

The bike also had a blue face on the odometer gauge with miles matching the papers. Every reference of the bike I can find in bike reviews say the gauges were green. Now I know that my odometer could have easily been changed. So I did some more research on forums, classifieds and Youtube and have since found many 1974/75 cb550s with blue gauges. So again, an unlikely surprise, but it looks to be original to the bike. 

Remember how the tank was badly dented? Well, the story continues. Excited to get into things I immediately began giving the old beast a thorough cleaning. There was dirt everywhere with sand and grit found in every crevice of the engine body.

The bike had been given an intentionally “rustic” paint job for the movie. Where black was painted over silver and then sanded back to reveal the silver in spots. Again, apparently to serve the look of the film. But, despite soap being thrown in its direction the bike still looked dirty after each wash. So a quick trip to my local auto paints store and I returned with high quality black paint for rims. Something that would endure the elements until I would be able to powder coat it down the road.

Well, removing the gas tank revealed a very silver frame indeed. All the hardware such as the battery holder and metal clips were also painted in silver. And the quality was too good to fit the work of the movie look. This had been done before.

The more I investigated the frame and paint the more I was impressed with the workmanship. Someone at some point in its history cared for this bike.

But the cleaning revealed something else too. I noticed some dents on the side of the engine fins. But as the wax was removed the dents turned into chips and cracks. This engine had been through war. The majority of the wear was on the same side where the gas tank had most of its dents.

Had someone used this as an enduro bike? It’s possible.

In many ways, rediscovering an old bike is like unearthing an archeological site. One must rely on the remnants of clues to share the stories long forgotten or untold.

Yet it’s these discoveries that hint to the story and soul of the bike. The peculiarities of the engine. The way it sits on the road. And the charm of its character. Much like an old friend. Battered, bruised but no worse for wear.

And also, much like an old friend. Occasionally they share stories that almost seem too interesting to be true. Yet they are.

Many movies are filmed in the area I live. Mostly small production indie films. Some of my friends are filmmakers. So when Tom remarked that this bike was used on set it didn’t grab my attention. That is, until I began discovering more about the peculiar hints of history that this bike seemed to have. An unlikely original paint color. An unlikely pairing of forks and carburetor. An unlikely speedometer. And even an unlikely turn of events – from the pride of someone’s garage to become what appears to be an enduro to then appear on a film set. All of which was unlikely. But evidence suggested otherwise.

And like all nagging thoughts it asked to be investigated.

It turns out it was in a movie, titled Endless. The movie was released in 2020. And stared Nicholas Hamilton (from IT) Alexandra Shipp (Storm on X-Men).

And surprise surprise, the bike is featured on the cover of the film. 

Alexandra Shipp, Nicholas Hamilton, and the Honda CB550 staring in Endless

Now I know that the bike was in a movie. I know that it was painted blue. I also know that it has a CB550f fork and carburetor. And I know that it was owned by a chef at some point. Tom told me. But I don’t know that it was used as a dirt tracker or that it was stored in a garage. I only have the clues. But isn’t that what great stories are. Just enough to guide you along and just enough to let your mind wonder.

My humble CB550 in a scene from Endless
On Motorcycles Resource

Tuning a Honda CB550 carburetor with pods

Here’s how I tuned my 1974 Honda CB550 motorcycle with pods.

My bike came with pods when I purchased it. I will share the full story in another post for those who are interested. And here’s the post on the build. But in short, the choke didn’t work. The carburetor was a mess. One of the carb cylinders was bent and jammed with a missing needle. Some cylinders were beyond repair. Glue was in the carbs. And it was leaking fuel. If I can make this bike run well with pods, anyone can make their bike run nice.

Step 1: Clean and rebuild the carbs.

I disassembled and cleaned every nook and cranny of the carbs. It’s an easier job than you may expect. I had 4 sets of containers. 1 for each carb. And took notes and photos as I went. And noted the number of turns each screw was set to. Which made it very easy to reassemble everything.

Step 2. New spark plugs

Step 3: Tension cam chain

Step 4: Set valve clearance

Step 5: Set timing

Step 6: Vacuum sync carbs

Vacuum Syncing Carbs
Vacuum Syncing Carbs on CB 550

When that is done. You are ready to tune the carbs for your pods.

Here’s the settings that are working for me

Set the carb bowl float heights to the stock 22mm

Size 115 main jets. For reference, I live at 1150ft elevation.

Size 42 slow jets (pilot jet)

Raise the sliding needle by moving the clip to the second lowest position. (Opens the needle)

Fuel/air mixture screw is set at 3/4 turns out. Stock is 2 turns out.

Here’s the settings explained

I set the carb bowl float height to the stock height to stop fuel overflowing. And to get a baseline across all carbs.

The main jets effects the amount of fuel you have at the top end. It was running lean. So upping to 115 solved that.

The slow jets effects the low end and idle. If it’s too rich at the low end you need a smaller slow jet. And vice versa.

The sliding needle effects the middle range of power. The more raised the needle the more fuel is being pulled from the main jet in the carbs. I have 4 into 1 pipes with a small muffler. Which increases the air flow. (Again it’s what the bike came with). By raising the needle the bike gets a richer mixture. Solving the “bog” feeling (too lean) when opening the throttle. If you’re sputtering and sluggish when opening the throttle (meaning too rich), then you will want to lower the needle. Another way of checking. If you hold your throttle at mid point and revs climb and run away, that’s lean. If your revs dip or sputter, that’s lean.

The fuel/air mixture screw was the final adjustment I needed to do. It fine tunes the throttle responsiveness and the idle on the low end. To find the setting that is right for you, warm up the engine, then give a bit of throttle and let the revs settle down. Adjust the screws 1/4 turn at a time. Turning the screw clockwise (inwards) enriches the mixture. Outwards leans the mixture. Blip the throttle and let the revs settle down after each adjustment. If it takes too long to settle down to idle then it’s too lean. If you hear backfiring then it’s too lean. If it sputters with throttle or dips below ideal idling (or just die) when settling down, then it’s too rich. Make adjustments to the screws accordingly. When you get the sound you’re happy with (Not lean, not too rich) that’s your spot. Make a note of how many turns you’ve set it to, so you can remember later.


If bike is running too lean/rich at idle to 15% throttle? It’s your pilot jet.

If bike is running too lean/rich at the top end? Hearing tinging, clanging, or overheating at full throttle? It’s your main jet.

If bike is sputtering/dying or bogging when giving a little throttle (20-70% throttle). It’s your main needle height.

If bike is backfiring. Adjust your fuel mixture screw.

Final note. Always err on the side of being too rich. A lean condition can be the kiss of death for a motor.

Thanks for checking this out. It’s been an enjoyable and rewarding project.